MEDT 8461 Web-Based Portfolio

I. Introduction

“To be a teacher in the right sense is to be a learner. I am not a teacher, only a fellow student.”- Soren Kierkegaard

In the course MEDT 8461- Diffusion of Innovations, I have struggled, I have reconsidered and I have learned. I believe this process has made me a better teacher. The ISTE NETS-C standards are

  1. Visionary Leadership
  2. Teaching Learning and Assessments
  3. Digital Age Learning Environments
  4. Professional Development and Program Evaluation
  5. Digital Citizenship
  6. Content Knowledge and Professional Growth

The process of striving for these standards in this class has been challenging. The concept of innovations and their diffusion is an important topic to understand, because a) innovations, by nature, affect so much of the population b)understanding their power is to understand the underpinnings of the pedagogy of the classroom.

II. Project Descriptions

Project 1- Annotated Bibliography

To be an excellent student is to have excellent resources available to you. This project allowed me to learn about the process of selecting quality literature. Annotated bibliographies are the scholarly way of sharing ideas and giving them a “thumbs up” or a “thumbs down”. This relationship among peers lightens the workload, but also allows the progress to jump ahead instead of regress.

Project 2- Visual Mapping

To understand the thought process is an elusive goal for many teachers. Thoughts are not visual and cannot be seen, touched or manipulated by others. The process of showing understanding is also difficult as most often paper and pencil tests are given to assess this understanding and authorities claim success. I have learned, through the process of completing three Visual Mapping sessions, that to show true understanding there is nothing more valuable than the student explaining in their own words and pictures the concept being learned. Essentially, the student becomes the teacher.

Project 3- Elevator Speeches (Podcasts)

Podcasts are a new way to convey thoughts to an audience in an auditory way. Years ago, people listened to radio broadcasts, such as FDR’s fireside chat. The difference in this new social media and those programs of yesteryear, is the capability of the audience to participate bu commenting in a forum for all to see,instead over the garden hedge only to your neighbor. The process of creating these podcasts was important in understanding the “stickiness factor” because of the short time limit it was necessary to distill the message to only most essential elements.

Project 4- Interviews

Data collection is the other half of a teacher’s life. A teacher delivers the instruction to the class, not an easy task when you take into consideration the differentiation, remediation and acceleration tailored to meet the needs of all children, and then assesses the data collected to judge the instruction a success. These interviews were an alternate strategy to the traditional process of formal assessment. At the end of the process, I believe that there is more than one valuable way to collect data and, although qualitative data analysis is not usually described as “easy”, it can lead to richer results and more developed research.

Project 5- Research Paper

The process of writing a research paper is reflective and informative. I learned, from the Literature Review, that researchers are always looking to move forward and are striving to be unique. They reference and review each other and then support each other work to weave a net of knowledge. Completing the process of this research paper allowed me to add, in a very infinitesimal way to the galaxy of research and gave me the tools to reach out to my peers as well.

III. Conclusion

The Diffusion of Innovation class gave me insights to social media and through those insights, a better understanding of what an innovation is an how one behaves. Social media is a powerful thing and can be used as a tool to accomplish many things, globally and locally. Like any innovation, some attributes of social media are positive while others are negative. The biggest benefit of this class was the “lens” to start looking for innovations around me and to harness those positives to improve my classroom.

IV. About the Author


Project 5- Final Research Report

Research Report: Young Adults and Social Media
Liz Dean
July 14, 2013

What the power of social media? Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) defined social media as “A group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content”. Social media is a specific part of the Internet. Social media is not sending an email, buying an item from or enrolling in an online class. Social media is explicitly defined as “user generated”. This means that the public is able to change, alter and/or contribute while sharing in that application. The categories of social media that were created by Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) are:
● Collaborative Projects (such as Wikis)
● Blogs (such as Blogspot)
● Content Communities (such as Pinterest)
● Social Network Services (such as Facebook)
● Virtual Game Worlds (such as World of Warcraft)
● Virtual Social Worlds (such as Second Life)
Many people mistake social media to mean Facebook. However, Facebook is a specific application in the category of social network services under social media. The top five social networking service websites reported by eBizMBA (2013) were:
● Facebook
● Twitter
● LinkedIn
● Pinterest
● MySpace
We already know that the youngest adults, 18-29 year-olds, go online at a rate equal to that of teens (both 93%) (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, and Zickuhr, 2010). We want to know more about this age group, such as their self-perceptions and preferences about technology, the applications they use to gain access to social media and why they use social media.

A Review of the Literature

The past research we reviewed on young adults and social media can be broken down into these categories:
1. Self Perceptions and Preferences
2. Specific Applications of Gaining Social Media Access
3. Purpose for Online Social Media Access

Self perceptions.
It is important to know the perceptions and preferences that young adult have about social media. These attitudes shape their use of social media and thus the spread of social media as an innovation. The research shows that participants ages 25-32 ranked only .12 points higher in areas of attitudes towards technology, technical proficiency and competency perception than their 33-40 year old counterparts (Poellhuber et al., 2011). To break the demographic down further, participants in the 25-32 age range ranked themselves better at Blogs, Photo sharing and Podcasts while participants in the 16-24 age range ranked themselves better at Video sharing, Social networking and Wikis (Poellhuber et al., 2011). In the broad term of social media, the younger (16–24 and 25–32) groups reported higher expertise with nearly all social media except web conferencing (Poellhuber et al., 2011).
Young adults are not always the age group that shows the most interest in social media. The oldest (49 +) age group is more interested in learning use social software, such as social bookmarking, Twitter, 3D virtual worlds, podcasts, blogs, and web conferencing, for learning purposes than the younger 16–24 group and/or the 25–32 group (Poellhuber et al., 2011). It has also been found that even though older students profess less expertise with all the social media, they express equal or higher levels of interest in using these media in their studies than younger students do. This could suggest that those with more experience do not see the value of these tools for formal learning or that they have become accustomed to and have expectations of only informal and entertainment uses (Poellhuber et al., 2011). The 16–24-year-old group distinguishes itself from other age groups not by revealing an increased desire of use, but rather a decreased one (Poellhuber et al., 2011). Young people use social media for social and entertainment purposes and do not necessarily see them as tools for learning. This seems to be particularly true for social networking, which a fairly large number of experienced users are not interested in using for learning purposes.  (Poellhuber et al., 2011).

Specific applications of gaining social media access.
Young adults are using the various devices wirelessly to access the Internet, but the question that follows is- what applications are they using to access social media? The reports are surprising. First, the category of blogging is on the decline with young adults. Since 2006, blogging has dropped among teens and young adults while simultaneously rising among older adults (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010). In December 2007, fully 28% of online 18-24 year olds maintained a blog. By September 2009 that figure had fallen by half, and just 14% of internet users ages 18-24 maintained a blog (Lenhart et al., 2010).
The number of young adults using social networking sites has grown. The number of internet users has grown from 8% of internet users in February 2005 to 16% in August 2006 to 37% in November 2008 and as of September 2009, 47% of online adults used a social networking website (Lenhart et al., 2010). In 2010, nearly three-quarters (72%) of online 18-29 year olds use social networking sites with 45% doing so on a typical day (Lenhart et al., 2010). For adults under thirty, MySpace and Facebook are approximately equal in popularity, with LinkedIn a distant third. In this age group, 71% of profile owners between the ages of 18 and 29 have a profile on Facebook, 66% have a profile on MySpace and an additional 7% have a profile on LinkedIn (Lenhart et al., 2010).

Purpose for online social media access.
In terms of the Internet, social networking sites are a powerful application among young adults. In a study by Mattsson and Åhlund, young adults were asked about using social media and the participants reported that they used Facebook primarily to keep contact with friends through chat features or via status updates. Furthermore, the participants discussed the need to use Facebook to maintain contacts and arrange meetings for example, with friends from other schools. Young people’s use of social media proved to be about socializing with friends (2013).
Social media is also being used for business.  Social media has changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power-migration that is taking place and to the emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customers (Constantinides, 2013). In her doctoral theseis, Krisanic researched user’s motivations when using social media and found that “interaction between users on Facebook is not specific to product discussions or shopping” (2008). Krisanic’s explanation of this data was “In an attempt to understand why these motives did not have a significant relationship with Facebook use, Ellison et al. (2007) stated that the common goal of all social networking sites is, “forming connections between users,” (p. 1)”.
Social media is also used for information, such as entertainment and research. In the social media category of blogging, young adults chose to read blogs for entertainment (Constantinides, 2013). . Young adults said that they use the computer to search for information because they have not the time or inclination to browse paper books (Mattsson & Åhlund, 2013). Young adults are using social media for research as well.  In the 18-29 age range, 72% look online for health information while four in ten adults in the 25-39 age range (40%) look online for information about weight control (Lenhart et al., 2010).

Research Questions
To better harness the power of social media with young adults, the motivations for using social media and applications used by young adults to meet these motivations must be explored. This research seeks to find qualitative and quantitative data to answer the following questions:
1. What percentage of young adults use social media?
2. What are the main qualities that attract young adults to social media?


Student interviewers personally selected participants because they fit the age description. The average age of the participant was 24.3 years old. There were 13 Females and 7 males. When asked about their current job, 9 described themselves as not employed and 11 described themselves as employed. Among all the participants, the average amount of time using social media is 4.9 years.

Student Interviewers were provided with a set of questions created by Dr. Danilo Baylen for the University of West Georgia (Appendix A). Student interviewers were given a link to a survey generator to enter the participants’ answers. Data was automatically aggregated into a spreadsheet for review.

A survey of qualitative and quantitative questions was created to collect data about social media. Students interviewers selected one participant for each of 5 different age categories: Teen (19 years old and younger), Young Adult (20-29 years old), Adult (30-45 years old), Midlifer (46-59 years old), and Senior (60 and older). Each student interviewer was responsible for entering the answers to the survey into an online survey generator. The collected responses were aggregated for analysis in a data spreadsheet.


Framework for Data Analysis
Malcolm Gladwell (2000) discussed his idea of “The Stickiness Factor” in his book The Tipping Point. He described “The Stickiness Factor” in the first chapter as “there are specific ways of making [an innovation] memorable; there are relatively simple changes in the presentation and structuring of information that can make a big difference in how much of an impact it makes””(p.25). Gladwell (2000) continues in chapter four about the power of “The Stickiness Factor” saying “There is a simple way to package information that, under the right circumstances, can make it irresistible. All you have to do is find it” (p.132). In the analysis of the data from young adults about social media, it is important to focus on identifying “The Stickiness Factor” of social media. By identifying what percentage of young adults use social media and the qualities that attract them to using social media, we can discover the “sticky” power of social media over young adults.

Methods for Analyzing the Data
To answer the first research question, a quantitative analysis was performed on the responses given for Question 18: “What is your top social media tools and/or applications? List your top social media tools/application and why”.  Each response was examined for use of social media in the affirmative or negative. The number of affirmative and negative responses were counted and made a percentage. This process was made easy by the fact that all 20 participants responded that they use social media.
To gather the qualitative data to answer the second research question, qualitative analysis was performed on the responses to Questions 10, 12 and 18. These questions were used because participants responded with specific social media applications for these three questions. Each social media application mentioned in a question was marked as a response, meaning that some participants entered multiple responses for the same question. Any response that was given and was not a social media application, such as Skype, was not included in the analysis. The responses were then analyzed for the participants’ motivations for using these social media applications. These motivations were separated into three main categories of motivation to use social media: communication, business and information (entertainment and research).

Data Analysis
When participants were asked, “What is your top social media tools and/or applications? (Question 18), 100% of the participants listed an application of social media. Furthermore, participants listed different social networking services 25 times, various content communities 3 times and mentioned separate blogging sites 3 times:

Top Media Tools-Applications

When asked “What comes to mind when you hear “social media”?” (Question 10), participants were mostly neutral in their responses. Qualitative analysis of the results shows 1 positive response, 2 negative responses and 17 neutral responses. This means that the majority of young adults perceive social media as neither positive nor negative. Some participants responded to this question with specific social networking services: 9 participants mentioned Facebook, 6 mentioned Twitter and 1 mentioned YouTube. In this same question, participants also discussed some of the reasons they use social media: 4 participants discussed the interactive nature of social media sites (such as sharing), 6 responded with connecting (such as networking) and 12 discussed communication (such as advertising, dissemination of information). These results did not give enough information to satisfy the research questions.
Participants were asked, “What kinds of social media do you use?” (Question 12). All of the participants mentioned specific applications of social media:

Types of Social Media - Reported

Although the question specifically asks to define social media in general and inquired as to kinds of social media, all of the answers given were specific applications of social media categories. To reiterate, the categories of social media are:
● Collaborative Projects (such as Wikis)
● Blogs (such as Blogspot)
● Content Communities (such as Pinterest)
● Social Network Services (such as Facebook)
● Virtual Game Worlds (such as World of Warcraft)
● Virtual Social Worlds (such as Second Life)
To quantitatively analyze the data, the responses must be related to their social media categories.
table of reportedtoActualNone of the participants mentioned an application that would fall into the categories of Collaborative Projects (such as Wikis), Virtual Game Worlds (such as World of Warcraft) or Virtual Social Worlds (such as Second Life).
These responses can then be reset into their social media categories and the specific applications can be removed. When we apply these categories of social media to the answers given by our participants, the picture changes:

Types of Social Media - Actual

Key Findings

The data from the current research was correlated to the categories of the aforementioned research. Research categories were:
1. Self Perceptions
2. Specific Applications of Gaining Social Media Access
3. Purpose for Online Social Media Access

Self perceptions.
None of the questions asked of the participants directly required them to reflect on or rate their abilities with social media. There is however a correlation between self-perceived abilities with social media and preferences of use of social media. While people are quick to make evaluative judgments, these are a reflection of much more than the pleasurable and pleasing. Embedded in the preference reactions are assessments of the compatibility of the environment with one’s anticipated needs and goals (Kaplan, 1985).
Past research reported that participants in the 25-32 age range ranked themselves better at Blogs, Photo sharing and Podcasts while participants in the 16-24 age range ranked themselves better at Video sharing, Social networking and Wikis (Poellhuber et al., 2011). Our participants in the 25-32 age range did not choose to use any blogs for access to social media while the 19-24 age range mentioned blogs three times as their top social media applications. The 25-32 age range listed photosharing sites twice as their preferred application while the 19-24 age range did not mention them at all. Neither age range mentioned podcasts, which have not officially been defined as social media only as “new media” (Penn, 2008). Neither age group mentioned any Wikis or any other collaborative projects. Interestingly, of the 16 responses given in the 25-32 age range, 68% of them were social networking services, while in the 19-24 age range only 60% of the responses were social networking services. All of the current data shows a reversal in the preferences of social media from the young adult demographic from previous study performed in 2011.

Specific applications of gaining social media access.
The past research reported that young adults’ use of social media has grown from 8% in 2005 to 16% in 2006 to 37% in to 72% in 2010.  This research found that 100% of the participants used social media. The participants primarily listed social networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn, as their means to access social media.
The aforementioned research reported that the use of MySpace and Facebook were equal, while LinkedIn was ranked third (Lenhart et al., 2010). In the data collected from our participants, MySpace was not mentioned, Facebook was mentioned 46 times during the survey and LinkedIn was only mentioned twice. This data shows the decline in the use of MySpace since the 2010 and the growth in popularity of LinkedIn.
In our current data, only 7% of the responses mentioned blogging. The only blogging applications mentioned by our participants were Twitter and Tumblr. This result was congruent with past research reporting that blogging is decreasing among the young adult demographic. In looking for reasons explaining the decline of blogging, Mak offers “Many bloggers in the past few years have slowed down in blogging, and have shifted to Twitter, Facebook and Google + in the posting of links.  Besides the number of blogs posted have decreased significantly as bloggers found it hard to keep their blogs updated with posts, and that not too many readers were willing to provide comments as part of the conversation” (2013).

Purpose for online social media access.
The number one reason reported by participants for using social media, specifically their use of social networking sites, was communication with family and friends. Past data and the current participants both included the ability to manage social invitations. It can be argued that communication alone is not an element of the definition of social media. The definition of social media does include the aspect of “sharing user created content”. Looking at the responses, the motivations that the participants gave for their communication were similar to the past research and did include the aspect of creating of content. The current data discussed the aspect of developing relationships with other people whether they were acquainted in the past or met through the social networking sites. Participants discussed the sharing between people, not only posting messages, but commentary on other people’s messages, sharing and commenting on photos and videos, as well as seeking support from strangers on similar interests, such as childcare.
Participants’ second most often cited purpose for using social media was for business aspects such as purchasing or marketing. Participants did associate their self-promotion with social networking specifically and chose to use Facebook “because everyone is connected on one site”. Participants responded that social media made it easier to connect with other people as customers in user specific content areas, such as a forum for Pokemon cards. Although Ellison denounces the use of social media for marketing because of the collaborative nature of social media, which is difficult to find in a seller/buyer format, this is rapidly changing with the concept of customer product reviews becoming more popular (Chen, Fay & Wang, 2011).
The last main reason mentioned for use of social media was for information. Several participants used YouTube for entertainment while others use Instagram. Twitter was cited as an excellent source for current news and participants related their perceptions that Twitter, because of its inherent format, was more timely with breaking news than mass media. The previous research has not listed this as a reason to access social media and only reported that students preferred to use computers to access information. This new phase of social media being accepted as a format to disseminate information can be seen in the growth of collaborative projects such as Wikis from one billion edits on April 10, 2010 to 624,235,511 edits as of July 13, 2013 (Wikipedia, 2004).
In conclusion, our research showed that 100% of young adults use social media and the main qualities that attract young adults to social media are communication, networking for business and information retrieval, for entertainment or news.

The largest challenge of the data collecting process was the ignorance of the participants and the subsequent reporting of misinformation by the student interviewers. Participants answered “What kinds of social media do you use?” incorrectly with specific social media sites. It could be assumed that participants either did not know that there are different kinds of social media, that participants only perceive social media as social networking sites or that participants did not understand the question. These theories are all conjecture. The allowance of this incorrect information to be reported could mean that it is possible that the student interviewers thought the same way as their selected participants. Again, there is no data to support any reasons for these actions. Ultimately, the deficiency in reporting could have easily been avoided if the student interviewers and the participants had adhered to the entire question as written.
Several of the participants stated or intimated that they did not know the difference between users and consumers of social media.  When asked if they were a user or a consumer, 13 replied user, 4 replied consumer and 3 replied that they were both. When their comments are analyzed, 2 of the participants are actually users while 18 are consumers. These misconceptions of users versus consumers could easily be overcome if all involved agreed on the definitions and motivations of users and consumers prior to answering the question.

This research shows this innovation of social media has a “stickiness factor” because of its widespread use. This research shows the motivations of young adults to use are communication, business and marketing as well as access to information, entertainment and news. Because this research shows 100% of young adult participants are using social media and this research shows what their motivations for using social media are, this data can be used to prepare in several ways for the future.
First, the majority of marketing agencies appear to be already well aware of the interactive knowledge among clients and 40% of marketing agencies and are concentrating on training their employees in social media (Mortimer, 2010). This means that businesses are going to be using social media to their advantage. This needs to be prepared for by 1) educating impressionable young users of the persuasive tactics of marketing so they may recognize them and be able to judge for themselves the impact of these tactics 2) preparing secondary level students for possible careers using marketing and social media. Social media is the area where many marketers feel they are short on experience, “There is more focus on social media but far too few [employees] are qualified”  (Mortimer, 2010).

The overall use of social media has been on the rise in the last decade, despite the decline of specific categories of social media such as blogging and virtual social worlds. This research has shown that 100% of the young adult participants use social media through social networking sites. This research has also shown that young adult primary motivation for using social media is communication, business and information. This data is valuable to plan for the future use of social media, especially the education of those still learning to use social media. This research is not suggesting that the data collected is complete or that the research in this area can be labeled finished. The author would suggest more research into these motivations of users of social media to help educators harness the ultimate power, or “stickiness factor”. More research is also needed of the social media innovation as a whole to give educators leverage in making students successful in the classroom. Research of social media could also assist in lessening the slide in the perception of social media by young adults as pure entertainment and move these perceptions back to being viewed as a valuable tool.


Chen, Y., Fay, S., & Wang, Q. (2011). The role of marketing in social media: How online consumer reviews evolve. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 25(2), 85-94.
Constantinides, E. (2013). Social Media Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities in the Web 2.0 Marketplace.
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143-1168.
Gladwell, M. (2000). The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Boston: Little, Brown.
Kaplan, A.M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
Kaplan, R. (1985). The analysis of perception via preference: a strategy for studying how the environment is experienced. Landscape planning, 12(2), 161-176.
Krisanic, K. (2008). Motivations and impression management: Predictors of social networking site use and user behavior (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri).
Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media and young adults. Pew Internet & American Life Project, 3.
Mak, S. (2013). Is blogging on the decline in 2013?. Retrieved from
Mattsson, I., & Åhlund, A. (2013). ” Biblioteken vill bara vara hippa”–en studie om ungdomars attityder till bibliotekens marknadsföring på sociala medier.
Mortimer, R. (2010, May 27). On course to develop social media skills. Marketing week, 32-34. Retrieved from
Penn, C. (2008, September 04). Social media and new media are not the same. Retrieved from
Poellhuber, B., Anderson, T., & Roy, N. (2011). Distance students’ readiness for social media and collaboration. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(6), 102-125.
Top 15 most popular social networking sites. (2013, July). eBizMBA: The ebusiness knowledgebase, Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Child Health USA 2011, 9. Retrieved from
Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2013, July 13). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved from

Appendix A
Student Interviewer Questions for Participants
In which of the following categories would you consider yourself?
A. TEEN – somebody who is below 20 years old
B.  YOUNG ADULT – older than 19 years but younger than 30 years old
C. ADULT – older that 30 years old but younger than 46 years old
D. MIDLIFER – older than 45 years old but younger than 60 years old
E. SENIOR – somebody who is 60 years old and older
5. Your Name:
6. Your relationship to the interviewee

  • Immediate Family
  •  Relative
  •  Peer/Colleague (at Work)
  •  Friend/Community
  •  Other

7. Birth Year  (e.g., 1990)
8. Gender

  • Male
  •  Female

9. What is the your current job?  Please write “STUDENT” or “UNEMPLOYED” if appropriate for those not working.
10. What comes to mind when you hear “social media”? (define social media. Follow up with a “why” for the definition given)
11. Are you primarily a social media user or consumer? Why do you perceive yourself a user or consumer.

12. What kinds of social media do you use? (Be specific with the social media tool or application) How is each social media tool or application is being used?
13. How long have you used each social media you mentioned in previous question? (Be specific with the length of time — months or years would be preferable)
14. In what ways social media supports your life? Provide a situation or scenario where you use social media.
15. What challenges have you experienced in using social media? Provide a situation or scenario.
16. What are the benefits of using social media in your life? Provide a situation or scenario.
17. What advice can you give to those who want to use social media? What makes this advice important to others? beginners?
18. What is your top social media tools and/or applications? List your top social media tools/application and why.


About the Author

Project 4- Interviews as Data Collections Strategy

Interviews as Data Collection- Reflection
Liz Dean
July 2, 2013
In 1844, Samuel Morse sent the first telegraph saying “What hath God wrought?”. After 169 years, the art of communication has come a long way. Today, the speed of news is dizzying because social media. Social media is defined by as “forms of electronic through which users create online communities to share information”. How do we interact with social media? What are our concerns and benefits of using social media? I surveyed four different generations with a qualitative survey to find out how much they knew about social media.
Selection Challenges
When reading the instructions for this research, I could easily think of fifteen to twenty people who would be willing to participate in this survey. Unfortunately, when I emailed and messaged them, many either a) did not respond or b) said they would participate but never filled out the questionnaire. I created eleven separate Google docs specific to each person’s email so they would feel their information was safe. In the end, I had three people finish the survey. I knew I would have to call the SENIOR, as email is not a reliable way to contact him.
Once I had created the Google doc for each person and they completed it, I was able to read through their first responses. The YOUNG ADULT was very thorough in his answers, ADULT started that way and then wrote less as the survey went on and MIDLIFER typed her answers in text-like language. I had to contact MIDLIFER to get clarification and justification for her answers. The SENIOR gave short answers even on the phone (not surprising, since he was a military man and a pilot so he didn’t want to “hog the radio”). I typed their responses in separate documents to compare their answers.
Lessons learned
As I was renaming, sharing and emailing each person their questions, I was worried that they be deterred how much information I was asking for. I was pleasantly surprised that my YOUNG ADULT gave his answers as complete and detailed as he could. I was also surprised by how many social media sites YOUNG ADULT and ADULT could name and use. I was also pleased that they knew a good definition of social media.
However, I would hesitate to use this qualitative method in a scientific report. Although it was easier to get information from the interviewees if I interacted with them on a personal level, I felt that their casual answers were difficult to compare. I thought the questions were focused, but the questions were open-ended and allowed for the answers to be lengthy and meandering. Even though all participants were asked the same exact questions, to try and standardize their answers into a graph or ranking would be difficult. Therefore, it was difficult to distill the results to a simple set of answers without leaving portions of each interview out.

In the future, I would give the SENIOR participants choices to choose from for their answers. I would leave comment areas for those who wanted to write more explanation as a part of their response and mark them as ‘optional’. I would also suggest that my participants write in complete sentences to help form their ideas into a more coherent answer. I would also start with the YOUNG ADULT interview as he taught me about resources and usage of social media that I had not thought of before. I would perform the SENIOR interview last, as it was a little discouraging.

Since long distance communication began, we have never seen a level of involvement and shared creativity like the explosion of social media. With any new technology, there are always drawbacks and pitfalls, but there are also benefits and progress. Social media is primarily created by it’s users and communities. This method of discussing with the participants their progress and participation with social media was informative and interesting for me as the interviewer, but difficult to translate to paper and report to others.

Social media. (2013). In
Retrieved from media

About the Author

Project 1- Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography
Liz Dean
June 9, 2013

I focused my search for resources related to diffusion of innovations of technology in education to article within the last seven years and primarily used the search engine of Google Scholar. I attempted to use Diigo to organize my bookmarks, but I found out when I returned to my library of bookmarks that many of them were links to articles that had to be purchased.
Ferlie, E., Fitzgerald, L., Wood, M., & Hawkins, C. (2005). The Nonspread of Innovations: The Mediating Role of Professionals. Academy of management journal, 48(1), 117-134.
Ewan Ferlie is a Professor of Public Services Management at Kings College in London. Ferlie writes about organizational changes in public services focusing mainly on health care and education. Louise Fitzgerald is a Visiting Professor at Manchester Business School and is currently working on a research project focusing on management’s utilization of research evidence in their roles. Martin Wood is a professor in the School of Management at RMIT University and part of his research includes the dissemination of social science knowledge. Chris Hawkins is affiliated with the University of Warwick.
This research paper discusses the barriers to the diffusion of innovations. Specifically, it discusses the strong barriers between social groups at the micro practice of medical practice slow down the spread of innovations. The study states that this research will impact other fields such as global organizations. The study discusses Rogers’ 5 basic categories of innovation and their linear flow and Van de Ven and others’ research on the fluid and messy nature of innovations. Van de Ven’s research includes some study in the health care area, which the authors of this research blatantly agree with over the Rodgers research.  The three main questions that the authors wanted to answer are: (1) Are innovation pathways in health care linear or messy? (2) Is robust scientific evidence sufficient to lead to successful diffusion? (3) What impact does greater innovation complexity have?. The research process identified three areas in spread of innovations: (1) geographical spread over a range of sites, (2) spread beyond early change champions to a wider population of adopters, and (3) spread across organizational, occupational, or sectoral boundaries
(for example, from secondary to primary care). The report did not have an answer to the first question, stating “We had not originally expected the innovations to exhibit such complex spread pathways.” To answer the second question the authors found that scientific evidence had bias and thus made the argument for or against an innovation difficult. I could not easily find and answer to the thirds research question as the language of this article was difficult to follow. However, I would include this article in the discussion of innovations and social media because it discussed so many of the barriers of diffusion.
Iribarren, J. L., & Moro, E. (2009). Impact of human activity patterns on the dynamics of information diffusion. Physical review letters, 103(3), 038702.
Jose Luis Iribarren is the Social Networks Innovation Director for the Instituto de Ingeniería del Conocimiento. Esteban Moro is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.
This experiment was to measure the influence of human activity on the diffusion on the diffusion of a specific piece of information. The researchers were focusing primarily on email as the mode of sending this information. The researchers also challenge the previous work that has been done in this area because they feel that the previous experiments neglect human activity patterns and focus on the average rate of occurrence, or the Poisson distribution. I believe this means that they are trying to say activity begets activity, or the resending of the email which then moves the information along and disseminates it.
Although the language of this research paper is quite complex, I believe that the summary says that the diffusion of information is greatly affected by humans. One of the most interesting aspects I found was that in the people who forwarded the information, very few ended up being closed loops or sending the email to someone who already received it from someone else.
Russell, D. L., & Schneiderheinze, A. (2005). Understanding innovation in education using activity theory. Educational Technology & Society, 8(1), 38-53.
Donna L. Russell works with the University of Missouri-Kansas City in Instructional Technology and Curriculum and Instructional Leadership. Art Schneiderheinze works as an instructional designer at Kendall College in Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of this study was to research teachers’ participation in collaborative professional development, what factors in individual teacher’s school environment influence how they implement a unit and how issues of practice and pedagogy and their beliefs about teaching and learning influence how they implement a unit. The schools and students used in the study were diverse, ranging from urban to rural and Caucasian to Black. The main collaborative technology used was emerging at the time of this study and was called Shadow netWorkspace™ (SNS). The teachers also had varied beliefs on the outcomes of the unit and varied abilities to collaborate and problem-solve.
The findings of the study were that the teachers who were in environments with little collaboration could greatly benefit from communication with sources outside their local environments. The ones who were already at higher innovative environment found it stressful to collaborate. The study suggests that further research is needed to study complex human systems and the mixture of skills and concepts used to implement innovations in the classroom and that this further study would help to develop professional development programs to help educational innovators.
This article was very valuable to me as an educator because it focused on innovations in the classroom. I also would include the article in research on social media because communication was such a large portion of this research.
Shaikh, Z. A. (2009). Usage, acceptance, adoption, and diffusion of information & communication technologies in higher education: A measurement of critical factors. Journal of Information Technology Impact, 9(2), 63-80.
Zaffar Ahmed Shaikh is a Doctoral Student in Karachi, Pakistan This study was conducted in Pakistan to review the information communication technologies in higher education institutes.  This study focused on the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and the ZPD gap.  A assessment with 32 questions was sent to 30 participants of various backgrounds and demographics. The finding of the study were that the areas of planning, developing and organizing instructions, Assessing student learning, academic research, and group discussion/supervision/training had the most significant gaps. The suggestions of the researcher were to expand this research to a global scale.
I found this article to be difficult to follow, despite the many charts and diagrams. I would not include this in my research paper as the confusing acronyms lead the reader astray from the topics. I did find it interesting that other countries are evaluating their computer systems and their effectiveness.
Shea, P., Pickett, A., & Li, C. S. (2005). Increasing access to higher education: A study of the diffusion of online teaching among 913 college faculty. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 6(2).
In 2005, online learning was a small percentage of classes taken at institutions of higher education. The purpose of this study was to identify potential barriers to the future of online learning. Four main variable were discovered to influence professors satisfaction with online teaching: 1) levels of interaction in their online course, 2) technical support, 3) a positive learning experience in developing and teaching the course, and 4) the discipline area in which they taught. This study was conducted through the SUNY Learning Network. Participants answered 35 questions about 8 different areas of their online learning through a survey.
The findings were that most people were “generally” positive about their online learning experience. Some professors reported being overwhelmed at the amount of interaction. The report suggests that professors be trained to see this uptick in interaction as a positive attribute of online learning.  I found it surprising that many of the respondents did not list time commitments as a detractor. I look forward to more research on the comparison of the time a teacher needs to prepare for a traditional classroom versus the time needed to prepare for an online classroom.
Strudler, N., & Wetzel, K. (2005). The Diffusion of electronic portfolios in teacher education: Issues of initiation and implementation. Journal of research on technology in education, 37(4), 411-433.
This study tracked the Diffusion of the use of e-portfolios through teacher education programs. The main research questions were: 1) What was the situational and historical context in which electronic portfolios were adopted and implemented and 2) What do the various facets of the electronic portfolio process look like as implemented. The first phase of the study was to identify teacher education programs that use e-portfolio and have been using them for a period of two to three years. A call for the nomination of programs meeting the specified criteria resulted in 26 programs responding. This pool of respondents was culled to six university finalists chosen for the study. Site visits to the universities allowed for interviews, the main method of information collection, review of artifacts and observation of various facets of the implementation process.
The findings of the research showed that five of the six universities had used paper portfolios extensively before moving to e-portfolios. It also found that the universities were strongly influenced by state standards for teachers moving towards performance based assessments which had led to the development of these paper portfolios which were found to be bulky and difficult to archive. The move to e-portfolios was a “top down” process and thus was given pressure and support. The authors warn that this method should be used delicately as too much pressure is seen as a mandate and leaves the staff reluctant to change while too little support leads to lack of motivation to move forward. In these universities, there was system-wide buy in and plenty communication on rubrics and checkpoints. The interviews and field notes taken during this study are interesting for their frank language from the interviewees.
Taylor, M., & Perry, D. C. (2005). Diffusion of traditional and new media tactics in crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 31(2), 209-217.
This research study article has two parts 1) it reviews the publications of the Internet’s contribution to media relations and the internet’s possible capability to handle crisis communication and 2) the results of the study on how organizations actually adopted the Internet into their crisis communication. To collect the sample of crisis communication, and were monitored daily by reviewing the summary pages. In addition, the study researched how the organizations used the Internet to communicate during a crises. The two methods identified were 1) Traditional Tactics including methods such as news conferences and press releases and 2) Innovative Media Tactics including methods such as Dialogic Communication and Real-time Monitoring. The study found the 98% of organizations were using the Traditional Tactics for communication of crises and 34% only used Traditional Tactics. The study also found that 66% of the organizations included at least one Innovative Media Tactic in their communication of the crises with most popular tactic being Connecting Links to more information about the article.
I would use this article in a study of social media and innovation because it studied these major information outlets and how they are moving towards new techniques in their reporting.
Trelease, R. B. (2006). Diffusion of innovations: Anatomical informatics and iPods. The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist, 289(5), 160-168.
This is the report on an experiment to disseminate information by open resources on personal multimedia players. The files were prepared for upload and use on different platforms. The files were also tracked for number of downloads and number of rebroadcasts. The population was intentionally chosen to be a wide array of medical students who would be studying limb anatomy for the first time. The iPod support website was sent a notification email of the availability of the iNatomy files. That website immediately posted a release notice and review of the files. That same day, four other iPod support websites posted the same information. Within the first ten days, there were over 600 downloads of the files as well as reviews of the files in English, French, German and Italian.
One of the most interesting side effects of the experiment were the unsolicited emails from users of the resources, especially those in areas with limited accessibility to anatomy resources. The scholarly research of a few ended up benefiting the larger community.
This article is perfect for any research on social media because it measures the Diffusion of a message from the epicenter. Although the innovation did not reach the epidemic proportions described in Malcolm Gladwell’s book Tipping Point, it is a planned diffusion and the data surrounding the resulting diffusion. I also would report on the positive side effects, that were unplanned, of a diffusion.
Van de Ven, A. H. (2007). Engaged scholarship: A guide for organizational and social research. OUP Oxford.
During the 1980s, Van de Ven directed the Minnesota Innovation Research Program. With Scott Poole, he co-authored Research on the Management of Innovation: The Minnesota Studies (reprinted 2000), Organization Change and Innovation Processes (2000) and Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation (2004).
This article discusses the issues in designing process models for developing
or testing a process theory as 1) clarifying the meanings and theories of process, 2) designing field studies to address process questions, 3) observing and collecting data about process events over time, and 4) analyzing these data into coherent and useful process theories.
An interesting conclusion of this article is “There is no definitive best design for a given project, and any design requires giving up some data in order to focus on others.” The author recognized the massive amounts of time and data collecting needed to conduct a longitudinal study of how thing progress over time and he suggests collaborating with other researchers.
This is an excellent article for questioning and organizing any study on change. I would use this as a reference guide before starting any study of a diffusion and I would use it as to measure the quality of any research on a diffusion.
Van de Ven, A. H., & Poole, M. S. (2005). Alternative approaches for studying organizational change. Organization Studies, 26(9), 1377-1404.
Andrew H. Van de Ven has been named as the Vernon H. Heath Professor of Organizational Innovation and Change in the Carlson School of the University of Minnesota.   Van de Ven received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1970 and he performed extensive research in the areas of organizational innovation and change. Marshall Scott Poole is Professor of Communication and of Information and Operations Management at Texas A&M University. He received his Ph.D. in 1980 from the University of Wisconsin. Poole has performed research in the areas of group and organizational communication, information systems, conflict management, and organizational innovation.
The authors discuss the history of organizations and organizational change and use quotes from many sources including Democritus and Leonardo daVinci. The authors discuss two different definitions of organizational change 1) variance theory and 2) process theory and these definitions are critical to their identified approaches. They conclude there are four approaches to study organizational change:

  • Approach I: Variance Study of Change in Organization
  •  Approach II: Process Study of Change in Organizations
  •  Approach III: Process Study of Organizing
  •  Approach IV: Variance Study of Organizing

The authors argue that all four approaches are needed to gain the whole picture of change in organizations. The authors state that time is the most fundamental issue in all approaches, “To understand a change process it is critical to understand how it unfolds over time and how time and timing affects them.”
Although the authors refrain from using the word diffusion, this is essentially what they are discussing. I would include this article in a discussion about innovations because it clearly discusses the different between variance and process and the importance of time in all changes.
In my research of articles dealing with innovation and diffusion in education, I was disappointed at the lack of research available on the successes of raising student scores through the use of technology. I was pleased at the use of technology to improve the greater community in the Trelease article. I would like to focus on more articles and research reporting the good effects of technology on the world.

About the Author

Project 2- Visual Maps

Project 2
Liz Dean
June 16, 2013

Have you ever known what you wanted to say, but you have gotten stuck on how to say it? When discussing heavy texts such as Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell or Diffusion of Innovations by Everett M. Rogers, it is necessary to deeply understand the main ideas of the author. When discussing the diffusion of innovations and the impact of social media on diffusion, simple language and even graphics become important.
Mind mapping is a valuable tool for organizing complex ideas into simple text and images. The author must plan their thoughts before putting them onto paper, keeping their audience in mind. The author must make decisions about colors, fonts and graphics to convey their message easily.
I present three ways to create a mind map. I have also included comparisons between methods and advantages and drawbacks of each.
Hand-drawn Mind Map

When I planned this mind map, I wanted to discuss three main topics: The elements of diffusion as discussed by the authors of the texts for the class, The positive and negative attributes of innovations and their diffusions as discussed by the authors of the articles in my annotated bibliography and the suggestions for the Future as discussed by the authors of the articles in my annotated bibliography. I started on the left with the main bullet points from each author listed in the order of their publication from oldest to newest. I added reference graphics to similar ideas from different authors to help draw the audience’s eye to the similar elements. In the middle of the map, I chose larger graphics to summarize the main ideas from the articles that I selected with smaller themes written around the images. I chose to color code all the positive attributes green and all the negative attributes red.  Lastly, I chose bright yellow for the word Future to symbolize caution and listed suggestions for moving forward.
I then noticed there were a few elements missing from my Mind Map. I overlooked the vocabulary and title as well as the process of innovation, but I realized these ideas would be important to my audience. I added the title “Diffusion of Innovations”, definitions of Innovation and Diffusion and a numbered list for the process of Innovation to the drawing.

SpicyNodes is a relatively new concept mapping application. It’s main feature is the ability to display hierarchical data. This outline form is then generated onto a radial map. The user may customize main points and include images.

SpicyNodes allows you to enter an outline of your main points and subheadings before generating your mind map. I chose to add the heading of “Basic” to the main topics discussed in my mind map, with the definitions and process underneath. I continued with my other three topics: Elements, Attributes and Future. I decided that the map lacked color and cohesion. Therefore, I looked for royalty free images to add reference graphics to similar ideas (such as the lightbulb for the recurring idea of innovation). I also added theme graphics such as the speech bubble image for the idea of collaboration, the watch image for the idea of time, and the spilt drink image for the main image and title of the mind map “Diffusion of Innovations”. I felt these additional theme images reduced the starkness of the template from SpicyNodes and added color to the mind map.
Prezi is described as a “cloud-based presentation software and storytelling tool for exploring and sharing ideas on a virtual canvas”. Prezi’s main hallmark is its Zooming User Interface (ZUI). There are main templates offered and options for customization are available. Users may also imbed pictures or hyperlink to additional resources.

I again chose to use a template at the Prezi website. Although the original template had more headings than I needed for my mind map, the template was easy customized to what I needed. I used the same four topics: Basics, Elements, Attributes and Future. In this mind map, I kept the subheadings for the topics of Basics and Future within the main circle, while the topics of Elements and Attributes were given “sub-circles” due to the volume of information under those headings. I was also able to customize the view order of these new “sub-circles”. Prezi did not have the option of adding images to the headings or subheadings, but I was able to see the entire mind map at the same time.

Of all three options for creating a mind map (Hand-drawn, SpicyNodes and Prezi), I was least pleased with my own drawing by the end. It is unfair that this was my first attempt and, upon reflection, I see I could have made some better choices in my organization. I should have included the basics as a topic from the beginning and should not have attempted to fit them in as an after thought. I am also unhappy with the mediums in the drawing such as crayon, highlighter and permanent marker. The colors in my hand-drawn mind map were washed out in the scanning process. I was most pleased with the ability to see the entire map on one page and to compare headings and subheadings easily.
I worked on the SpicyNodes website for the longest period of time because the added graphics slowed the load time on the page. I liked the option to add the ideas in an outline format and this process helped galvanize what I wanted to discuss. I was most displeased and the inability of the website to show the entire mind map in a single graphic.
Prezi was the easiest option for the features of copy and paste. Prezi also allowed me to change the view order and fonts for each heading easily. Prezi was not helpful for adding graphics to the mind map and I feel some of the flow of the map and ideas is lost.
Evidence of mapping out thoughts has been found in ancient Egypt (Mento, Martinelli, & Jones, 1999). There evidence that Leonardo daVinci used them to organize his thoughts. Even as children, we use images to link common thoughts.
There are positive and negative reasons for using mind maps. Mind maps are easy for students to create but not always easy for the viewer to understand. Eppler (2006) recommends for “Use it for pre-analytic idea jostles or rapid note-taking, or to structure the main contents of a course or topic hierarchically a good way to summarize main points or ideas”.
While I was learning how to mind map, I discovered I retained the over a longer period of time than when I used traditional note taking. I also found that I could visualize my map and recall themes more easily with the images than with words alone. Images and graphic are important in mind maps. According to Budd, (2004) “the use of images in the entire Mind Map is recommended. In conclusion, I found myself forced to delve deeper into the assigned topics than ever before to understand what I wanted to then communicate to my audience.
Budd, J. W. (2004). Mind maps as classroom exercises. The Journal of Economic Education, 35(1), 35-46.

Eppler, M. J. (2006). A comparison between concept maps, mind maps, conceptual diagrams, and visual metaphors as complementary tools for knowledge construction and sharing. Information Visualization, 5(3), 202-210.

Mento, A. J., Martinelli, P., & Jones, R. M. (1999). Mind mapping in executive education: applications and outcomes. Journal of Management Development, 18(4), 390-416.

About the Author

What is Social Media and its Role in Enhancing Teaching and Learning? podcast script

What is Social Media and its Role in Enhancing Teaching and Learning?
The Merriam Webster dictionary defines Social Media as “forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (as videos)”. The top five social media websites from eBizMBA (2013) were:

  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • Pinterest
  • MySpace

In relation to time in your life, when someone speaks of “professional life” they are referring to what you do at work while “personal time” or your “social life” means the time and people outside of work. Add that to the idea of media, and you have communication that you manage outside of work with your friends. Social Media is different than Mass media. Lievrouw and Livingstone (2002) state “The immediacy, responsiveness, and social presence of interaction via new media channels constitutes a qualitatively and substantively different experience than what was possible via mass media channels”.
Understandably, Social Media has diffused into education. Treagus predicts (2013) “that in 5 years time 80% or more of schools, colleges and universities will be using social media as not just a marketing tool, but as an actual cog in the learning process of students”. In the realm of music and music education, Salavuo states (2008) “Music students are of course involved with musical activities both in educational institutions and during their spare time”. He continues (2008) “There is a clear need for online environments, where musical collaborations can spring up and develop also accidentally, where ideas are exchanged and the expertise of the members capitalized” (Salavuo, 2008). Many believe in harnessing the positive attributes of Social Media and using it to teach students in a new way. Salavuo states (2008) “It is time for online music education to move from the culture of consumption to participatory learning activities”.

How is Social Media going to be used in the classroom? Teachers have already created Classroom Blogs to communicate with students or for group members to collaborate outside of the classroom walls. Students and teachers involved in distance learning frequently use Skype to communicate with those that they could not otherwise reach. Teachers have even created their own marketplace for selling their own lesson plans and materials such as
We can see that Social Media can be used in many positive ways in the classroom. Teachers need to be savvy and keep students and their information private. Students need to be responsible for their actions and words when online. Social Media in the classroom can be a positive experience now and in the future.

Current Issues/Challenges in Implementing Social Media in Education podcast script

Current Issues/Challenges in Implementing Social Media in Education

Have you ever seen the “Now Open” sign in a new restaurant and been a little hesitant to try the food there? You think to yourself “Let them work out the bugs for a little while and I will try it in 6 months”. There is an amount of time that must go by for something new to become stable. The early innovators are the beta test and they help improve an innovation. This is why I feel reluctant about using Social Media in the classroom.
The first reason for my hesitation is that there is little research on the impact of Social Media. Lievrouw and Livingstone (2002) report that there is “surprisingly little analysis of whether ICTs are, indeed, to be uncritically promoted, or whether gaining access to the Internet or other new media technologies is so obviously a ‘good thing’”. Some of the findings from research on Social Media and children have reported it’s negative impact such as “the intensity of the online world is thought to be a factor that may trigger depression in some adolescents (O’Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011).” Children do not, by their nature, understand the lasting impact of their actions online. One of the biggest threats to young people on social media sites is to their digital footprint and future reputations (O’Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011).
The use of an open media source is concerning as well. Children are engaged in online activities at an exponential rate, which may not be good for them. A large part of this generation’s social and emotional development is occurring while on the Internet and on cell phones (O’Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011). There is growing concern over monitoring and the availability of age-appropriate media. Because of their limited capacity for self-regulation and susceptibility to peer pressure, children and adolescents are at some risk as they navigate and experiment with social media (O’Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011). Social media is also used by marketers and advertisers. Many social media sites display multiple advertisements such as banner ads, behavior ads (ads that target people on the basis of their Web-browsing behavior), and demographic-based ads (ads that target people on the basis of a specific factor such as age, gender, education, marital status, etc) that influence not only the buying tendencies of preadolescents and adolescents but also their views of what is normal (O’Keeffe & Clarke-Pearson, 2011).
When discussing the value of Social Media in the classroom, there are those who argue that it is not valuable. Treagus offers that(2013) “people seem to feel like they don’t need social media in schools and that it will just be a distraction for students”. There is also a discussion on how Social Media, with all it’s new capabilities, with fit in with what is already being done in the classroom. Salavuo states (2008) “The idea of the collaborative processing of knowledge, alongside the culture of contributing one’s own creative work and ideas, are contradictory to traditional practices of education and often alien to the existing learning culture.”
I would hesitate to bring children into the area of Social Media, an area that has not been properly researched, without evidence that what I was using was safe. I would also offer that Social Media should be reserved for areas when it is the only way to accomplish the goal of learning, not the other way around. Social Media, or any other innovation, should not be the root of the lesson. The goal of the learning process should be knowledge not the diffusion of an innovation.